Botox Research Today is a free monthly online journal that collates and summarizes the latest research about Botox, including details on cosmetic botox, side-effects, alternatives, treatment.
Botulinum toxin type A injections for treatment of spastic equinus in cerebral palsy: a secondary analysis of factors predictive of favorable response.
Sätilä H, Huhtala H
From the Department of Paediatric Neurology, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate markers predicting favorable botulinum toxin injection outcomes in treating spastic equinus gait in children with cerebral palsy. DESIGN: Thirty-six children (21 boys and 15 girls, aged 1.5-9.6 yrs; 20 with unilateral and 16 with bilateral cerebral palsy levels I to IV with the Gross Motor Function Classification System) with 49 treated lower limbs were included. Passive range of movement, selective dorsiflexion, dynamic muscle length (modified Tardieu Scale), calf tone (modified Ashworth Scale), attainment of anticipated gait pattern (Goal Attainment Scale), and video gait analysis (Observational Gait Scale) were assessed before and 1, 2, and 4 mos after intervention. Participants were classified as poor or good responders, according to the Goal Attainment Scale response at 2 mos. RESULTS: Good response was noted in 23 (64%) children and 29 (59%) legs, whereas 13 (36%) children and 20 (41%) legs were defined as poor responders. In a multivariate regression analysis, the best predictors of good response per child were higher initial Observational Gait Scale total scores, one-level treatment, and normal cognition; and the best predictors per leg were good initial selective motor control in the ankle and capability of occasional flatfoot contact at pretreatment. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children with less severe functional deficit, fair to good selective motor control in the ankle, and mild equinus gait respond best to focal botulinum toxin type A treatment, with an eye to flatfoot or heel strike contact. Likewise, children with higher cognitive level seem to derive functional benefit from the treatment.
Published 21 October 2010 in Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 89(11): 865-72.
Articles on Botox published 29 September 2010:
OBJECTIVE: A few studies have reported the use of botulinum toxin injections after spinal cord injury, as this is the gold standard to treat focal spasticity. We report such a case here. CASE REPORT: A 38-year-old woman who had become paraplegic and care-dependent secondary to cervico-thoracic intramedullary ependymoma, presented 8 months later with painful lower limb spasticity, which was being treated with oral anti-spastic and benzodiazepine drugs with no therapeutic effect. We treated the ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Isolated laryngeal myokymia: diagnosis and treatment. Laryngoscope, 120(10): 2033-5.
Myokymia is an uncommon neuromuscular disorder that rarely affects the human larynx. No previous reports of isolated laryngeal myokymia are present in the literature, and as such, established treatment protocols are lacking. We report the first case of isolated laryngeal myokymia in a 48-year-old woman with no other neurological findings, and our successful results in initial treatment and maintenance therapy with focal intralaryngeal injections of botulinum toxin A. [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Botox published 22 September 2010:
Targeting botulinum neurotoxin persistence by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 107(38): 16554-9.
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent natural toxins known. The effects of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) can last several months, whereas the effects of BoNT serotype E (BoNT/E), which shares the same synaptic target, synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25), last only several weeks. The long-lasting effects or persistence of BoNT/A, although desirable for therapeutic applications, presents a challenge for medical treatment of BoNT intoxication. Although the mechanisms for BoNT ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Botox published 16 September 2010:
Onabotulinum toxinA injection as an adjunct in the treatment of posterior shoulder subluxation in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 92(12): 2171-7.
BACKGROUND: Botulinum toxin A is used to treat contractures in children with spasticity by temporarily interfering with neural transmission at the motor end plate. In infants with brachial plexus palsy, posterior shoulder subluxation and dislocation are the result of muscle imbalance, in which neurologic recovery is evolving, and spasticity is not a deforming force. We postulated that temporary weakening of the shoulder internal rotator muscles with botulinum toxin A would facilitate reduction ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Botox published 13 September 2010:
Preventive effect of botulinum toxin A in microanastomotic thrombosis: a rabbit model. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg, 63(10): e720-4.
BACKGROUND: Microvascular free tissue transfers play an important role in the reconstruction of body defects. Various aetiologies lead to vascular thrombosis and free-flap failure. In this study, the effects of botulinum toxin A on vessel diameters and prevention of anastomotic thrombosis were studied in a blinded vasospasm model in rabbits. METHODS: One side of 16 adult rabbit ears was pre-treated with botulinum toxin type A, and normal saline injections were performed as control in the ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Botox published 23 August 2010:
Effect of botulinum toxin on pressure pain threshold and EMG power spectrum of masseter muscle during sustained fatiguing contraction. Am J Phys Med Rehabil, 89(9): 736-43.
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to test the effect of botulinum toxin on a reversible, prolonged, experimental pain and on muscle fatigue in human masseter muscle, both caused by a sustained clench. DESIGN: The masseter muscles were injected with botulinum toxin in 19 subjects and with isotonic saline in 16 subjects. We measured electromyographic activity at maximum voluntary contraction, pressure pain threshold before and after a 70% maximum voluntary contraction clench sustained to ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Botox published 20 August 2010:
Excitatory cholinergic and purinergic signaling in bladder are equally susceptible to botulinum neurotoxin a consistent with co-release of transmitters from efferent fibers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 334(3): 1080-6.
Mediators of neuromuscular transmission in rat bladder strips were dissected pharmacologically to examine their susceptibilities to inhibition by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and elucidate a basis for the clinical effectiveness of BoNT/A in alleviating smooth muscle spasms associated with overactive bladder. BoNT/A, BoNT/C1, or BoNT/E reduced peak and average force of muscle contractions induced by electric field stimulation (EFS) in dose-dependent manners by acting only on neurogenic, ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
Articles on Botox published 12 August 2010:
PURPOSE: Patients with multiple sclerosis often experience overactive bladder symptoms. High dose intradetrusor botulinum toxin A treatment is effective but often results in urinary retention and urinary diversion via a catheter. In this pilot study we evaluated whether only 100 U botulinum toxin A would significantly decrease overactive bladder symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis without impairing pretreatment voluntary voiding. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Included in our study were 12 ... [Abstract] [Full-text]
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